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Nobody knows exactly when mankind invented the wheel, but just clear it was a long long time ago:

Evidence of wheeled vehicles appears from the second half of the 4th millennium BC, near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia (Sumerian civilization), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe, so that the question of which culture originally invented the wheeled vehicle is still under debate.

Well, once in our era, we counted more than 2000 years (today is 2016), respectively, then the wheel invented more than 7000 years ago. The first wheels were monolithic whole, made from a single piece of stone, wood.

stone wheel

wood wheel

Very soon, people learned how to make composite wheels, assembled from multiple parts.

wood wheel

wood wheel

wood wheel

But these wheels were very heavy, and judging from the available archaeological finds spoked wheel appears as a very, very long time ago.

spoke wheel

spoke wheel

However, these were spacers spokes. And even the first pre-images of bicycles have been created on the stud spokes (which work on compression). Here there was a long pause, about 6950 years.


The first wheel on the tension spokes invented Edward Alfred Cowper in 1867. This fact gives a very small value, even in books about Cowper says about it as little significant invention for him, although I think it’s overriding breakthrough, without which it is impossible to further the development of not only the wheel but also the construction of steel-wire rope structures.

Cowper wheel

Observation Wheel

The most famous of the first vertical Ferris wheel was built  in 1893 year. The engineer George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. came up with it for the world exhibition. He needs to build a facility that would, if not eclipsed by the glory of the Eiffel Tower, but would have been no less symbolic. When Ferris offered his wheel, laughed at him saying that unreal project, but the wheel yet been built.

Ferris Wheel

This fact is so popularized that the Ferris is inventor of the vertical observation wheel, but it is not quite true. When the first vertical observation wheel was built is not precisely known, but historians agree that multiple versions of a Ferris wheel existed in Russia in 17-18 centuries and that they was delivered from Russia to Europe. And in America before the Ferris wheel was built had many such designs but a little smaller size.

It turns out that in fact Ferris just very technically competent zooming vertical observation wheel what was built before his.

And all modern vertical observation wheel is back us to the wheel in Cowper inverted upside.

cast down wheel

Look a wheel in Singapore is the large wheel of Edward Cowper installed upside. 🙂

singapore wheel

Since the time of the Ferris wheel, and still there is a competition who will build the largest vertical observation wheel, projects today have more than 200 m, but is built is that the maximum of 168m High Roller in Las Vegas.

Horizontal Observation Wheel — Martynov Wheel

Around 2010 I came to put the same Ferris wheel on the side. Is it possible to make the same stable? Yes it’s possible!

martynov wheel martynov wheel

Well, why put it on its side, you ask? This is a fantastic opportunity to see such places to which you previously could not get closer. (Sure to check the page Hover over the abyss).

The first place where I dream to establish a Horizontal observation wheel is a roof of skyscraper building, and I wrote a separate page «Where to build a wheel?» If you know of other suitable locations, write me comments, and send photos.

If you like the concept or this article, post it in your blog or page.


if you are willing to become an investor building the wheel. Be sure Horizontal observation wheel is a great way to earn money, and the business plan I had prepared.

Invention is patented.

Look at construction models:


Sure to check the page : Hover over the abyss.

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